By Viacheslav A. Chirikba
Abkhaz is likely one of the 3 languages comprising the Abkhazo-Adyghean, or West Caucasian department of North Caucasian linguistic kin (the different department being Nakh-Daghestanian, or East Caucasian). Abkhaz is spoken by means of nearly 100,000 humans within the former Soviet union (mainly within the Republic of Abkhazia, Caucasus), and through at the very least an identical variety of audio system in Turkey and a few center east nations (small Abkhaz colonies are available additionally in Western Europe and the USA). Abkhaz is infamous for its large consonantal stock (up to sixty seven consonants in its Bzyp dialect) and through its minimum vocalic method: in basic terms vowels. although Abkhaz was once studied by way of a few students (among whom P. Uslar in XIX century, or extra simply okay. Lomtatidze in Georgia and G. Hewitt in nice Britain), many features of Abkhaz grammar (especially its syntax) nonetheless must be accurately defined. Abkhaz is the one West Caucasian language to own the class of grammatical sessions, manifested in own pronouns, verb conjugation, numerals and in type of quantity. Abkhaz is an ergative language, the ergative building being represented no longer via case endings, as in similar Circassian and Ubykh (Abkhaz doesn't have the case system), yet by way of order of actant markers. The verbal root is composed frequently of 1 consonant, preceded through a string of prefixes (class-personal, directional, temporal, negational, causative, etc.) and via few suffixes. Verbs may be stative or dynamic, finite or non-finite. The grammatical comic strip of Abkhaz comprises information regarding its phonological method, morphology, and syntax. a quick textual content is supplied with grammatical reviews.
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Extra resources for Abkhaz
Zeg' ajcardarwa wal daw-k' all well-known man big-IDF He was a great man known to everybody. 4. azia-DIR d-aa-r+ca 0-ja-3ba-0-jt'. he-come-PURP it-he-decide-AOR-DYN:FIN After having waited for about a year, Rashit decided to go to Abkhazia to visit his daughter and his son-in-law. 5. a-j 0 az-c0 a ART-friend-PL:H 0-aa-§'ta+x-na them-hither-lift-PCONV a-mla ART-road d-na-k0 a+l-0-t '. he-PREV-depart-AOR-FIN: DYN ja-s'amxa his-knee c'asxa-k' swelling-IDF He took his friends and departed. 6. jara that wabraj very alamtala time bat'a Bata 0-a-l-na-x-zaap', d-a-r-g0 aq'-wa da-§'ta-n .
K. The Abkhaz Language. Phonetics, Morphology. Textbook for the Establishments of Higher Education. First edition. V. Lomtatidze. ]. 0 AMCH'-PHA, s. 1984. Apsua-abaza bezs ak 0a rlek'sik'a [Amichba, S. The Lexicon of Abkhaz and Abaza]. Aq 00a: Ala§ara, 151 pp. AMICHBA, Kh. 1997. Tsvetovaja metafora v abkhazskom, nemetskom i anglijskomjazykakh (sopostavitel'nyj analiz) [Colour metaphor in Abkhaz, German and English (a comparative analysis)]. Avtoreferat dissertatsii na soiskanie uchenoj stepeni kandidata filologicheskikh nauk.
Qld(er) loans are modified to meet the patterns of the Abkhaz phonological system. g. a-wips ' Ossette' < Megr ops1; a-wlirba 'eagle' < Geo orb-i ), 61 The presence of the final -a in the Abkhaz form is not clear. t 'water-melon' < Tu karpuz) or were stripped of their timbre altogether (cf. a-da§'man 'enemy' < Tu diqman). ). The glottalized and aspirated consonants in words borrowed from the surrounding Caucasian languages were, naturally, left unchanged if they had exact matches in Abkhaz. In borrowings from Circassian the latter's obstruent laterals are rendered in Abkhaz as clusters t/, kl(< Circ 1), dl(< Circ If), the velar fricatives as palatalized (g'< g, k'< x) and labilaized (k 0 < x0 ) velar stops.
Abkhaz by Viacheslav A. Chirikba