By Steven Otfinoski
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"Do no longer be conceited as a result of your wisdom; technique the unlettered in addition to the clever. The summit of artistry can't be reached, nor does craftsman ever reach natural mastery. extra hidden than gem stones is chiseled expression but came upon between slave ladies grinding the grain. " —from the Maxims of Ptahhotep Poetry, tales, hymns, prayers, and knowledge texts came across beautiful written expression in historic Egypt whereas their literary opposite numbers have been nonetheless being recited round fire fires in old Greece and Israel.
Lebanese leading Minister Rafik Hariri, referred to as *Mr. Lebanon,* was killed by way of an important explosion as he drove alongside the Beirut seafront on February 14, 2005. A company entrepreneur, who rose from not anything to turn into essentially the most robust males in Lebanese politics, Hariri's assassination has incited outrage and suspicion.
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Fawaz A. Gerges is professor of diplomacy and Emirates Professor in modern heart East reports on the London college of Economics and Political technology. His many books comprise the recent center East, Obama and the center East, and The a ways Enemy. His writing has seemed within the manhattan instances, the Washington put up, the father or mother, overseas Affairs, and different publications.
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Additional info for Afghanistan (Nations in Transition)
At the other end of the spectrum is the brutal Uzbek warlord Rashid Dostum, the former head of the secret police during the Communist years. Dostum’s troops committed some of the worse atrocities against captured Taliban troops. 48 ■ AFGHANISTAN h HAMID KARZAI (b. 1957) A leader with a strong nationalist spirit and a largely secular outlook, Hamid Karzai may be just the kind of president Afghanistan needs to lead it into a new era. He was born in Kandahar on December 24, 1957, into the Popolzai clan, one of the most powerful of the Pashtun groups.
H THE ROCKY ROAD TO NATIONHOOD (1919–1979) ■ 21 It was not Daoud’s relations with the Soviets that got him into trouble at home, however. Many Afghans were critical of his obsession with the establishment of Pashtunistan and his ongoing disagreements with the Pakistanis. They wanted Daoud to pay closer attention to the economy, which was in decline. King Zahir Shah finally asserted himself and forced his cousin to resign as prime minister in 1963. A Constitutional Monarchy Within two weeks of his cousin’s resignation, Zahir appointed a commission to draw up a new constitution.
GOVERNMENT ■ 47 Unlike the American government, the Afghan government has four vice presidents. The only Pashtun vice president, Hajji Abdul Qadir, was assassinated in July 2002, creating an imbalance of power and representation in the government. President Karzai has earned the respect and support of many Afghans for his courage and determination. His primary goals are to make the nation safe, to promote education and health care, and to improve the nation’s roadways, many of which are impassable (see sidebar, chapter 10).
Afghanistan (Nations in Transition) by Steven Otfinoski