By Susan L. Cutter
Barrier islands, Flood plains, Earthquake faults: occasionally the surroundings poses threats to our health, but many folks proceed to decide on to dwell in dicy or risky locations. And on most sensible of the knowns are the opposite, extra hidden dangers regarding environmental illness that pose both severe threats to our well-being and health. yet the place are those areas and what varieties of dangers are came across there? "American Hazardscapes" examines the hazards linked to residing and possessing estate in various areas around the usa, providing twin views: that of the geographer and that of the social technological know-how risks researcher. The publication summarizes what we already find out about local styles of probability occasions and losses through the earlier 3 a long time and is going extra to make clear the character of the occasions themselves and their impression on society. Written for the moving citizen and the coverage maker alike, "American Hazardscapes" provides a neighborhood ecology of disaster-prone or disaster-resistant states. It additionally bargains options on what neighborhood, nation, and federal managers have to do to fulfill the problem of decreasing threat losses within the subsequent century.
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Extra resources for American Hazardscapes: The Regionalization of Hazards and Disasters (Natural Hazards and Disasters)
The chapter concludes with a discussion on the role of technological advances in influencing the mapping and the spatial analysis of societal response to hazards. M INFORMATIONAL NEEDS AND INPUTS The data we use in hazards assessment and response have two fundamental characteristics: a time (or temporal) dimension and a geographic (or spatial) dimension. The requirements for each may be quite different, depending on the application. For example, the data needed for postevent emergency response (rescue and relief) are quite 37 38 American Hazardscapes different from the information we need for longer-term recovery and mitigation efforts.
Similarly, the number of evacuees leaving specific coastal towns could be represented that way. Finally, animated maps can be used to graphically illustrate changes in phenomena over time, such as the population of the United States, the growth of a city, or the likely storm surge from an impending hurricane (Collins 1998). IMPROVEMENTS IN DATA COVERAGE AND ACCURACY During the past 25 years, our knowledge about risk, hazards, and vulnerability has improved. Over the same time period, we have seen major advances in techniques for collecting hazards data with increased Mapping and the Spatial Analysis of Hazardscapes 43 accuracy.
Seismic Risk Seismic risks are delineated in two different ways—through the identification of specific known surface and subsurface faults and through the regional estimation of ground motion expressed as a percentage of the peak acceleration due to gravity. Both rely on historical seismicity, using the past as a key to future earthquake activity. Assessments that 24 American Hazardscapes yield maps of active faults or data on historical seismic activity are the simplest forms of seismic risk assessment.
American Hazardscapes: The Regionalization of Hazards and Disasters (Natural Hazards and Disasters) by Susan L. Cutter